Almost 64 to 90% of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have sleep disturbances.
And the associated cumulative sleep debt can have a serious negative impact on the quality of your life if not addressed properly.
So how do you get better sleep if you have Parkinson’s disease?
To sleep better with Parkinson’s disease: talk to your neurologist about extending the clinical benefit of your treatment, limiting the side effects of levodopa and MAO-B/COMT inhibitors, treating non-motor symptoms, and trying sleep therapy instead of sleep medication. Adjustable beds can help mobility significantly.
The rest of this article expands on these points more fully so that you can get better sleep if you have Parkinson’s disease in 5 steps.
However, you should always consult with your neurologist, doctor, or another qualified medical professional to decide on the correct course of action for your unique situation.
Need an adjustable bed? The mobility benefits of an adjustable bed can make it much easier to move around and get in and out of bed – pick from the best adjustable beds to buy online here (includes discounts).
5 Ways to Sleep Better With Parkinson’s Disease
Here are 5 ways to get better sleep when you have Parkinson’s disease:
1: Extend the Clinical Benefit of Your Treatment
Asking your neurologist to extend the clinical benefit of your PD medication can help you to get better sleep because this will reduce the amount of time that the medication is less effective and thus inhibit the reemergence of symptoms that would otherwise prevent you from getting to sleep.
More specifically, replenishing the dopamine deficit in the brain is the treatment of choice in PD.
Treatment involves the use of drugs to restore this balance.
Levodopa is the most common drug used to treat PD .
Over the long term, levodopa causes ‘wearing-off’ and ‘on-off’ episodes.
‘Wearing-off’ is the loss of clinical benefit before the time for the next dose.
The ‘on-off’ effect refers to the sudden transition between states of mobility and immobility.
They cause re-emergence of clinical symptoms that can prevent you from falling asleep.
They may also stop you from being able to change your sleep position, awakening you from sleep.
1.1: Ask Your Neurologist to Adjust Your Treatment to Extend its Effect
There are several ways to extend the duration of the clinical benefit of your Parkinson’s Disease treatment.
Adjusting drugs by changing the dose and frequency is the most common method.
The use of extended-release drugs and continuous infusion pumps may be other options.
For selective patients, deep brain stimulation surgery may be more beneficial.
Your neurologist will help you choose among these options.
2: Limit Drugs that Disrupt Sleep
If you are suffering from muscle spasms (dyskinesia) caused by the long-term use of levodopa (with or without the addition of MAO-B or COMT inhibitors), then you should talk to your neurologist in regards to replacing these drugs with extended-release preparations and/or taking amantadine to control the dyskinesia.
The effect of drugs in PD are very unpredictable, especially in the late stages of the disease.
Long-term use of levodopa can cause a side-effect called dyskinesia.
Dyskinesias are uncontrollable, ‘dance-like’ movements due to the fluctuation of the drug’s concentration in blood.
Adding dopamine agonists like MAO-B or COMT inhibitors to levodopa can worsen these movements.
Violent dyskinesia can prevent you from falling asleep.
Remove these drugs and use extended-release preparations to decrease dyskinesia.
Another drug called amantadine is also useful in the control of dyskinesia.
Due to the higher age of patients with PD, they are also likely to be on other drugs which can disrupt sleep.
These include beta-blockers and diuretics (for hypertension or cardiac diseases), corticosteroids, caffeine, anti-depressants, and anti-anxiety drugs.
You should inform your neurologist about these medicines to avoid sleep-related side-effects.
3: Favor Sleep Therapy Over Sleep Medication
Patients with Parkinson’s disease may develop a multitude of sleep problems.
Whilst not all patients need drugs, it is still necessary to identify and treat sleep dysfunction at the earliest.
Treatment of sleep dysfunction begins with the observance of good sleep hygiene practices.
If you still have difficulty falling asleep, try behavioral modification techniques.
These include relaxation techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation, hypnosis, and guided imagery.
If you are having problems getting to sleep due to anxiety, then follow the sleep hygiene practices and other techniques in my guide to getting to sleep with OCD thoughts here.
3.1: Try Sleep Therapy
You can also try other techniques such as sleep restriction therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy.
These are especially useful if your sleep schedule is very erratic.
On day one of sleep restriction therapy, you have to stay out of the bedroom till 3 AM.
On subsequent nights, go to bed 15 minutes earlier until the target bedtime is reached.
In cognitive-behavioral therapy, a psychotherapist will help you replace unwanted thoughts with positive ones.
3.2: Only Use Sleep Medications as a Last Resort
If you are non-responsive to sleep therapy, sleep medicines may be useful.
Over-the-counter medicine such as melatonin taken 1-2 hours before bedtime may useful for some patients.
In severe cases, your doctor may prescribe a short-term course of sleep drugs.
However, caution should be exercised while on these medicines since they can cause confusion in elderly and cognitively impaired patients and may be addictive.
A detailed overview of sleep dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease and their specific treatments are provided in the second section of this article.
4: Use Sleep Accessories to Improve Mobility and Safety
People with PD should use accessories to avoid injuries caused by abnormal movements, make it easier to get in and out of bed, assist in turning or moving in bed, and prevent falls from the bed.
The best sleep accessories to get better sleep with Parkinson’s Disease are adjustable beds, bedside rails, bed raises, mattress raises, rope ladders, and satin sheets.
See below for more details:
4.1: Adjustable Beds
The best modern adjustable beds are electrically controlled with full rotation capability, height adjustment, chair convertibility, vertical rise, and sequential programming at a touch of a button.
They also come in varying sizes, heights, styles, and finishes.
They can help you to move about in bed, and allow you to get in and out of bed on your own terms.
If you’d like to buy an adjustable bed, pick from my list of the best adjustable beds to buy here.
4.2: Bedside Rail Grabs
Bedside rail grabs are safety rails placed along the bedside to prevent a person from falling off the bed.
It has a collapsible mechanism to lower the rail to the level of the mattress to help the user get in and out of bed.
It is portable and fits to all beds and is easy to transport.
4.3: Bed Raises
To get in and out of bed, it should be of appropriate height.
The general rule of thumb is that the bed should not be lower than the knee height (~22 inches high).
You may use bed risers to lift the whole bed by a couple of inches.
They come in different sizes and makes.
The most common ones are usually between 3 and 6 inches and made of wood, plastic, or metal.
Ensure that these bed risers are stable and well supported before use.
4.4: Mattress Raises
A mattress raiser lifts you up into a seated position to make it easier for you to get out of bed.
They come in mechanical, electrical, or pneumatic types.
They work better on mattresses that are thin and bendable without scrunching up.
Also, ensure that the electrical cords, feeding lines, and bedding don’t get caught in the raiser.
To prevent you from slipping down the mattress, keep a wedge pillow in the foot end of your bed.
4.5: Rope Ladders and Overhead Trapeze
Overhead trapeze and rope ladders can help you to pull yourself up from a lying to a sitting position.
The downside is that you need a lot of upper body strength to use these devices.
Alternatively, you can use hoists to lift you from your bed to your wheelchair or commode.
4.6: Satin Sheets
Satin sheets are smooth and can help you turn over in bed.
You should invest in designer sheets or buy regular ones.
Satin designer sheets have a panel of satin in the middle where your hips and trunk would rest.
They are slippery and smooth and decrease the friction which makes it easier for you to turn.
Also, be careful not to slip off from your bed.
5: Treat Non-Motor Symptoms that Disrupt Sleep
For many patients, the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are more bothersome than the motor symptoms.
The non-motor symptoms listed below may have a profound effect on your sleep and should be treated as follows:
Pain affects 60% of patients with PD.
It is sometimes central in origin or is secondary to motor symptoms of PD.
With appropriate management of symptoms, pain may go away completely.
Exercise, acupuncture, and Bowen/Alexander’s techniques are also useful for pain control.
If pain is very severe, use pain killers that have been approved by your doctor.
5.2: Bladder Disturbance
Bladder issues associated with PD include urge incontinence (due to an overactive bladder) and nocturia.
Restriction of water intake and diuretics after 4 P.M. are useful methods if symptoms are mild.
If severe, your doctor may also advise bladder training, intermittent characterization, or drugs.
You may also want to invest in hand-held urinals, adult diapers, and bed protectors.
5.3: Cognitive Impairment and Psychiatric Symptoms
Patients with PD often have cognitive impairment later in the disease.
They may also have psychiatric comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, hallucinations, and delusions.
Periodic cognitive and psychiatric assessment can help identify these symptoms earlier.
Yoga, Tai Chi, behavioral therapy (such as MoodGYM), and regular exercise are helpful.
Most patients need anti-depressants, anti-anxiety, and anti-psychotic medicines later in the disease.
Guide to Parkinson’s Disease and Sleep
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by a complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors.
It is the second most common degenerative disorder and affects 2% of people over the age of 65 years.
It is a progressive disorder that worsens with time.
The cardinal symptoms of PD are due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in specific areas of the brain.
These include slow movements, tremors, muscle stiffness, and balance problems.
Patients with PD also have non-motor symptoms.
These include smell and taste problems, pain, fatigue, bladder and bowel symptoms, restless leg syndrome, sleep disorders, swallowing difficulty, excessive salivation, double vision, speech problems, mood symptoms, and postural drop of blood pressure.
The diagnosis of PD is clinical and no tests offer absolute diagnostic certainty.
The diagnosis is especially difficult in the initial stage of the disease.
MRI and DAT scans are often used to differentiate PD from other disorders.
Parkinson’s Disease Treatment Involves Drugs or Surgery
Drugs and surgery can help you manage your symptoms.
The following drugs and surgeries are commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease:
Levodopa is the most effective drug for treating Parkinson’s disease.
It crosses into the brain and gets converted into dopamine.
Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, and light-headedness.
Prolonged use also causes abnormal movements (dyskinesia) that can also affect sleep.
Inhaled forms (Inbrija) and infusions (Duodopa) of levodopa are also available.
ii) Dopamine Agonists
These are drugs that bind to dopamine receptors and mimic the action of dopamine.
They are not as effective as levodopa but have a prolonged duration of effect.
They also smooth the on-off effect of levodopa.
Drugs under this group are pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, and apomorphine.
These drugs are available in tablet form – except for apomorphine (injectible) and rotigotine (patch).
Important side-effects include hallucinations, sleep attacks, and impulse control disorders.
iii) MAO-B Inhibitors
MAO-B inhibitors prevent the breakdown of dopamine by blocking the monoamine oxidase B enzyme.
This prolongs the availability of dopamine in the brain.
Common MAO-B inhibitors include selegiline, rasagiline, and safinamide.
Common side-effects are dizziness, nausea, and hallucinations.
They also have dangerous side-effects when combined with many drugs.
iv) COMT Inhibitors
COMT inhibitors prevent the breakdown of dopamine by blocking catechol O-methyltransferase enzyme.
It can prolong the effect of other dopaminergic medications.
The common COMT inhibitors are entacapone, opicapone, and tolcapone.
They may cause side-effects such as dyskinesia, diarrhoea, vomiting, and liver damage.
Anticholinergics have a modest effect on tremors in patients with PD.
Examples are trihexyphenidyl and benztropine.
They can cause severe side-effects in the elderly.
These side effects can include memory impairment, confusion, constipation, dry mouth, urinary retention, and hallucinations.
The use of anticholinergics in PD is declining due to their side-effects.
Amantadine is often used in the initial stage of PD or when dyskinesia develops.
The main side-effects are ankle edema, hallucinations, and purplish mottling of the skin.
vii) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
In this surgery, electrodes implanted into the brain stimulate specific brain regions.
It is generally advised in patients with advanced PD with side-effects of drugs.
DBS can stabilize motor fluctuations and reduces motor symptoms of PD.
Brain Changes Can Disrupt Sleep in PD Patients
The exact cause of sleep disturbances in PD is not completely understood.
The pathophysiological changes begin in the back of the brain and spread to the front.
Hence, the brainstem gets involved earlier in the disease than other areas.
The brainstem has the reticular activating system (RAS) which controls the sleep-wake cycle.
The RAS also communicates with other areas of the brain using many different neurotransmitters.
Brainstem involvement can change the neurotransmitter balance and modulate the activity of other areas.
This imbalance may manifest as sleep disturbances.
The use of dopamine agonists can produce sleep disturbances by altering neurotransmitter function.
Track Your Sleep Disturbances for Better Treatment
Sleep disorders are difficult to diagnose and are under-reported in PD patients.
Physicians may often disregard sleep problems over concerns of side-effects and drug dependence.
During the evaluation of sleep, your doctor may use questionnaires to identify sleep problems.
The common ones are ‘The Epworth Sleepiness Scale’, ‘Sleep Evaluation Test’, and ‘Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index’.
Additionally, scales such as the ‘Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale’ can identify specific sleep problems in PD.
These scales are available on the internet for your perusal.
To help get better treatment for your PD related sleep disturbances, you should track your sleep using any of the following methods:
i) Parkinson’s Disease Diary
Maintaining a PD diary is the best thing you can do to help your doctor identify sleep problems earlier.
Daily monitoring can also help you identify the complications, response to drugs, and other specific difficulties you may encounter daily.
Be sure to include a list of drugs, drug dosages and schedule, the time after which each symptom re-emerges, symptoms experienced at night, timing of dyskinesia, timing and content of the meal, wearing-off symptoms, non-motor symptoms and their fluctuations.
Either the patient or the caregiver can record these details.
Recorded over few days to weeks, these diaries will provide information necessary for the doctor to identify sleep problems, plan treatment goals and follow up on the clinical progress.
In a polysomnography test, several sleep-related functions are continuously monitored while you are asleep.
These include brain activity, heart and breathing rate, eye movements during sleep, nocturnal muscle activity, and oxygen saturation in the blood.
Based on these parameters, stages of sleep and their abnormalities are identified.
iii) Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)
The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) is also called a ‘nap study’.
It records the time between the start of a nap period to the first signs of falling asleep.
The brain and muscle activity along with eye movements are concurrently assessed in this study.
iv) Maintenance of Wakefulness Test
A Maintenance of Wakefulness Test is similar to the MSLT, with the exception that it measures a person’s ability to stay awake.
It is useful to identify sleep attacks and excessive daytime sleepiness.
An actigraphy is an objective way of measuring sleep and motor activity over long time periods (days to weeks).
It consists of a non-invasive accelerometer device worn like a wristwatch.
It tracks the sleep-wake cycles and is more accurate than the PD diary.
The information collated from different studies helps identify various sleep dysfunction.
Sleep Disturbances Are Common in PD Patients
Sleep problems constitute the second most frequent non-motor symptom of PD.
They occur due to many reasons.
Sleep disturbances most commonly arise due to inadequate treatment, a side-effect of drugs, and/or neurodegeneration.
These sleep disturbances may be either nocturnal or diurnal in occurrence.
The nocturnal disturbances include insomnia, periodic limb movements, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnia.
Diurnal sleep disturbances include excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, and restless leg syndrome.
A patient can have more than one sleep problem at the same time.
The most prevalent sleep disorders seen in PD patients are as follows:
Insomnia affects 27 to 80 % of patients with PD.
It can manifest as frequent awakening and fragmentation of sleep (maintenance insomnia), difficulty in falling asleep (initial insomnia), or waking up from sleep earlier than desired (terminal insomnia).
It is more frequent in women, advanced PD stages, PD with anxiety or depression, and in patients on dopamine agonists, COMT inhibitors, or MAO-B inhibitors.
Treatment depends on the type of insomnia and the underlying cause.
Extended-release levodopa and ropinirole, along with behavioral and cognitive measures are useful in most cases.
If there is no response, your doctor may prescribe you a short course of drugs to help you sleep.
These drugs don’t prolong the total sleep duration but decrease the awakening episodes.
Some of these drugs can cause dependence and should be used only for the prescribed duration
ii) Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)
RLS can cause an overwhelming urge to move your legs and is due to the dopaminergic deficit.
It usually affects women more than men.
In many patients, RLS occurs infrequently whereas some people have persistent RLS symptoms.
It is especially more noticeable in the evenings and at night.
Massage, stretching, and application of heat or cold have some benefits.
For severe cases, dopamine agonists and anti-seizure/neuropathy medicines are prescribed.
iii) Periodic Limb Movements (PLMS)
PLMS are stereotypic repetitive movements that affect the limbs during sleep.
Patients may be oblivious to the symptoms and are usually reported by the bed partner.
PLMS can lead to non-restorative sleep and can increase the frequency of awakenings, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness.
PLMS are more prevalent in PD patients who are also on antipsychotic medicines.
Treatment with dopamine agonists usually suppresses the symptoms.
iv) NREM Parasomnia
NREM parasomnias are arousal disorders that happen in the non-REM stages of sleep.
In PD, NREM parasomnias include confusional arousals, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors.
They happen due to the influence of degeneration on muscle tone and sleep transition.
They are more common in advanced PD and in patients with depression.
Alcohol, stress, fever, sleep deprivation, and sleeping in unfamiliar places may precipitate episodes.
Management requires re-adjustment of drug and their doses.
v) REM Parasomnia
These parasomnias affect the REM stage of sleep and are very common in patients with PD.
The most common REM parasomnias are nightmares and REM Behavior Disorder (RBD)
Nightmares are very common in PD.
The dream content is usually related to violence, animals, and misfortune.
They are usually very vivid and disturbing leading to fragmented sleep.
Previous traumatic events and stress factors can worsen the nightmares.
Antidepressants, beta-blockers, and cholinergic drugs can precipitate nightmares.
Treatment includes drug and dose adjustments along with imagery reversal therapy.
vi) REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a complex phenomenon that predates the motor symptoms of PD by many years.
It is characterized by complex, violent, and dangerous movements during sleep.
The sleep centers in the brain normally inhibit muscle tone during sleep.
In PD, this inhibition is lost, and muscle tone re-emerges leading to the enactment of dreams.
Due to this, you may end up punching, kicking, or throttling your bed partner!
This makes evaluation and treatment of RBD imperative.
Drugs such as MAO inhibitors, antidepressants, beta-blockers, opioids can worsen the RBD phenomenon.
Removal of precipitating drugs and treatment with clonazepam or melatonin can decrease RBD.
However, clonazepam can cause sedation and increase the frequency of falls.
Modify your bedroom to avoid injuring yourself or your bed partner.
Move away unnecessary furniture, weapons, and sharp objects from your room.
Add soft padding to the bed railings to prevent you from getting injured during an RBD episode.
Also secure the windows and doors of your bedroom.
If possible, sleep alone in your room.
vii) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
People with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) have snoring and repetitive episodes of airway obstruction.
During an OSA episode, breathing ceases and the patient wakes up.
It can lead to non-restorative sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness.
The best course of action is to use a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine.
The CPAP machine uses air pressure to keep the airway open and prevent further collapse.
Extended-release levodopa or extra nocturnal dose is useful in mild OSA.
For severe OSA, your doctor may recommend mandibular advancement devices or surgical intervention.
Other strategies are weight loss and sleeping on your side.
viii) Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS)
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) manifests as tiredness, fatigue, and sleepiness in the daytime.
Patients with PD may have EDS due to the disease or in response to other sleep dysfunctions.
It is more common in patients with increasing age, PLMS, immobility, advanced PD, and the use of dopamine agonists, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and sedatives.
The first step in treatment is to identify and treat other sleep disturbances.
Your doctor may also add stimulant drugs such as caffeine, modafinil, and methylphenidate.
Avoid driving and working with heavy machinery if you have EDS.
ix) Sleep Attacks
Sleep attacks are abrupt and irresistible transitions from wakefulness to sleep.
Patients usually have little warning.
If engaged in driving or operating heavy machinery, it can cause accidents.
The most common underlying cause is the use of dopamine agonists.
Sleep attacks respond to the dose reduction or cessation of dopamine agonists.
Modafinil and methylphenidate can help if sleep attacks occur with EDS.
Consider Using an Adjustable Bed
When you have PD, you should invest in beds/mattresses which offer comfort and function.
Use mattresses that work well with a bed with an adjustable base (like these).
Your mattress should provide good edge support, shallow cushioning, and a fast material response.
The mattress should be medium to firm in consistency and made of latex or flat gel with pocket coils or latex as support materials.
This would provide a firm surface against which you can push yourself to change position whilst also providing pressure relief.
These functionalities can help you get in and out of bed.
You should stay away from memory foam and soft, plush mattresses since they provide deep cushioning which is bad if you are trying to turn over.
Also, do not use mattresses with connected coils or water as the support material since they do not work well in beds with adjustable bases.
Parkinson’s Patients Do Not Shake in Their Sleep
Parkinson’s patients do not shake in their sleep from the condition alone because the motor symptoms of PD are usually inhibited during sleep.
However, sleep disorders such as RBD and PLMS can manifest as abnormal movements during sleep.
Furthermore, PD patients have fragmented sleep, OSA, NREM parasomnia, and neuropsychiatric symptoms which can wake you up from sleep.
This may lead to a resurgence of motor symptoms.
The anxiety associated with sleep disturbances can further worsen the motor symptoms.
Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Can Be Worse at Night
The symptoms of PD are often worse at night due to the side effects of medications like levodopa.
The rhythm of motor activity is different in patients with PD.
There are several studies that have reported motor activity and response to levodopa to be worse at night.
Sometimes, levodopa offers little to no improvement in motor symptoms later in the day.
This is particularly true in advanced PD.
This effect is seen whether levodopa is given intermittently (tablets) or continuously (infusion).
This is believed to be due to disruption of the circadian rhythm.
However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear.
Patients in an advanced stage of PD often demonstrate a ‘sundowning’ phenomenon.
In this condition, the neuropsychiatric features of PD worsen towards evening.
This may manifest as agitation, anxiety, confusion, and restlessness.
It is more commonly seen in patients with cognitive impairment.
Alternative Therapies May Help With Parkinson’s and Sleep
There is limited proof available that acupuncture, qigong, and bright light therapy (BLT) can help PD patients to sleep better.
Qigong is based on the Chinese philosophy of meditation, coordination, and deep rhythmic breathing.
There are many systems of this exercise.
A modern adaptation of qigong is tai chi.
Few studies have reported that 45 to 60 minutes of qigong exercises done at least 4 times a week improves sleep and other non-motor symptoms of PD.
BLT is believed to restore circadian rhythmicity and is known to be useful in patients with depression and insomnia.
Studies on small groups of patients with PD have also demonstrated this positive effect of BLT on sleep and mood.
By influencing the circadian rhythm of melatonin and dopamine, it also reduces the dose of dopaminergic medication required.
However, further research is necessary to establish the role of BLT.
Conclusion: Talk to Your Neurologist
The most effective way to get a better sleep when you have Parkinson’s disease is to talk to your neurologist or doctor to get specific help with extending the clinical benefits of your treatment, changing the dose and/or types of medication that you are using, and consider sleep therapies instead of using sleep medications.
You should also talk to a qualified medical professional about controlling associated conditions like pain, bladder problems, and cognitive issues that may also impact the quality of your sleep.
Investing in certain sleep accessories like rails, bed raises, rope ladders, satin sheets, and an adjustable bed can help you to move around more easily and prevent falls.
Sources and References
 MedlinePlus – Levodopa and Carbidopa. Accessed 25/2/21.
Although this article was written by a Ph.D. (neuroscientist) that has published papers on Parkinson’s disease and sleep, the information should not replace the advice given to you by your own doctor or neurologist.
Image Attribution and Licencing
Main image: ‘Aromatherapy for Better Sleep’ by Tilia Lucida – used with permission under the terms of Canva’s One Design Use License Agreement.
Dan is the founder and head content creator at Bedroom Style Reviews.
He has been working as a professional online product reviewer since 2015 and was inspired to start this website when he ended up sleeping on a memory foam mattress that was too soft and gave him backache.
Through in-depth research and analysis, Dan’s goal with this website is to help others avoid such pitfalls by creating the best online resource for helping you find your ideal mattress, bedding, and bedroom furniture.
Dan is a qualified NVQ Level 2 Fitness Instructor with 6 years’ experience helping clients improve their health through diet, exercise, and proper sleep hygiene.
He also holds several college and university-level qualifications in health sciences, psychology, mathematics, art, and digital media creation – which helps him to publish well researched and informative product reviews as well as articles on sleep, health, wellbeing, and home decor.
Dan also has direct personal experience with insomnia, anxiety, misophonia (hypersensitivity to sounds), and pain from both acute and long-standing sporting injuries – he enjoys writing insightful articles around these subjects to help fellow sufferers of such conditions.
Learn more about Dan here.